30 August 2008

Types of Perfume : Perfume, Eau de Perfume, Eau de Toillete, Eau de Cologne

PerfumePerfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. The concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil is as follows :

From highest concentration to least, the different forms of perfume are :
  • Perfume, (extrait), can include 15-30% perfume concentrates. This is the purest form of scented product and is the most expensive as a result.
  • Eau de PerfumeEau de parfum (EdP) contains about 10-15% perfume concentrates. This is the most popular and common form of perfume. It provides a long-lasting fragrance and generally doesn't cost as much as extract perfume.
  • Eau de toilette (EdT) has around 5-20% perfume concentrates. This makes for a light scent that doesn't linger as long as the more intense versions. It was originally intended to be a refreshing body splash to help people wake up in the morning.
  • Eau de cologne (EdC). Has around 2-5% perfume concentrates. Dilute perfume. Introduced c.1709 in Cologne, Germany, by Jean Marie Farina. However outside of Germany the term has become generic for a weakly concentrated perfume. It is sometimes used interchangeably with the term eau de toilette. However, the concoction began as the name of a light, fresh fragrance mixed with citrus oils and was made popular by Napoleon. Some perfumers today have a version of this called eau fraiche.
  • Splash PerfumeSplash Perfumes, (EdS) and aftershaves: 0.5-2% aromatic compounds. They are perfumes with hoemostatic effects basing on natural sources. Since 1994 special perfumes basing on jojoba, wax and fat alcohol (C6-C22 e.g. C22 behenyl-alcohol syn. docosanol) have the feature to be useful as herpes-protecting lip-gloss.
Perfume oil is necessarily diluted with a solvent because undiluted oils (natural or synthetic) contain high concentrations of chemical components (natural or otherwise) that will likely result in allergic reactions and possibly injury when applied directly to skin or clothing. As well, the scents in pure perfume oils are far too concentrated to smell pleasant. By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling lipids such as jojoba, fractionated coconut oil or wax.

As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in Eau de Parfum (EdP) dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in Eau de Toilette (EdT) from within the same range, the actual amounts can vary between perfume houses. An EdT from one house may be stronger than an EdP from another.

Which Perfume Match With My Personality?

Here is a list of Perfumes or fragrances matched by personality for quick, easy, and accurate gift choosing or new fragrance exploration.

Adventurous - Try Reaction by Kenneth Cole, Lolita Lempicka, Cool Water by Davidoff, Marc Jacobs Perfume, Mambo Women by Liz Claiborne, Maroussia by Slava Zaitsev, Paul Smith Extreme, Plus Plus Feminine by Diesel, Ultraviolet by Paco Rabanne.

Sexy - Try Attraction by Lancome, Burberry Touch, Chantal Thomass, Chloe, Contradiction by Calvin Klein, Eau de RubyLips by Salvador Dali, Eternity by Calvin Klein, Euphoria by Calvin Klein, Hypnotic Poison, Live by Jennifer Lopez, Poison by Christian Dior, Provocative by Elizabeth Arden, Sicily by Dolce & Gabbana, Sui Love, Tendre Poison by Christian Dior, Very Irresistible by Givenchy.

Carefree - Try Andy Warhol, Acqua Di Gio by Girogio Armani, Boss Woman by Hugo Boss, Burberry Brit Red, Cabochard, D&G Light Blue, Eternity Moment by CK, Dalistyle by Salvador Dali, Diorella by Christian Dior, First by Van Cleef & Arpels, Happy by Clinique, Flower by Kenzo, Gucci Envy Me 2, Pleasures by Estee Lauder, Rive Gauche by YSL, Romance by Ralph Lauren, Vanderbilt Wings by Giorgio Beverly Hills, Youth Dew by Estee Lauder.

Confident - Try Amarige by Givenchy, Cassini, Dalissime by Salvador Dali, DKNY, Dolce Vita by Christian Dior, G by Giorgio Beverly Hills, Kenneth Cole Women, Lacoste pour Femme, True Star by Tommy Hilfiger, Miracle So Magic, Armani Mania, Blue Grass by Elizabeth Arden, Obsession by CK, Opium by YSL, Promesse by Cacharel, Red Door Revealed, Rumba by Balenciaga, Versace Woman, Zero Plus by Diesel.

Chic - Try Burberry Brit, Chance by Chanel, Desire by Dunhill, Gucci Rush, Cerruti 1881, Stella by Stella Mccartney, Hugo Deep Red, Paul Smith London Her, Moschino.

Outgoing - Try Sensi by Giorgio Armani, Bazar By Christian Lacroix, Beyond Paradise, Red Door by Elizabeth Arden, Still by Jennifer Lopez, Diesel Green Feminine, Echo, Gucci Envy Me, Pleasures Exotic by Estee Lauder, Pleasures Intense.

Youthful - Try Daliflor by Salvador Dali, Paris Hilton, Diorissimo by Christian Dior, Dolly Girl by Anna Sui, Anais Anais by Cacharel, Baby Doll by YSL, Curious by Britney Spears, Eden by Cacharel, Fantasy by Britney Spears, Glow by Jennifer Lopez, Laguna by Salvador Dali, Love At First Glow by Jennifer Lopez, Miss Dior by Christian Dior, Paul Smith, Ralph Cool by Ralph Lauren, RubyLips by Salvador Dali, Sonia Rykiel, Sunflowers by Elizabeth Arden, True Love by Elizabeth Arden.

25 August 2008

How To Make A Simple Sunscreen

SunscreenCommercial sunscreen products often contain propyl compounds and other chemicals questionable for your health and many of the all-natural products are overly expensive due to the addition of exotic tropical oils for their scent.

Well, you can make your own sunscreen with a simple, cheap ingredients and equipment. In fact, you can add your own favorite flavour. Try this recipe.

Sunscreen OilIngredients
  • Olive Oil or Natural Oil
  • Pure Beeswax
  • Zinc oxide or titanium dioxide (USP grade)
  • Flavouring agent
Equipment :
  • Saucepan
  • Spoon for stirring
  • Stove/camp stove
  1. Bees WaxHeat a cup of olive oil over a low flame.
  2. Add 1 ounce of beeswax, broken into pieces if possible (so that it melts faster).
  3. Stir constantly until the beeswax is completely melted in the hot oil.
  4. Add one to two tablespoons of USP grade zinc oxide powder, a little at a time, continuing to stir constantly.
  5. Remove from the stove, and pour into a glass or ceramic dish that can be covered.
  6. Allow to cool to room temperature before use.
  • The beeswax makes the resulting product viscous, like a skin cream, holding the oxide in suspension. You can try varying the ratio of oil to wax.
  • The beeswax and oxide, if not available locally, can usually be found at auction websites.
  • Zinc oxide may be a health risk, so avoid breathing the powder. A face mask may be useful until the product is all in suspension.
  • It's better to dedicate a pan, stirring spoon, and any other necessary utensils for this purpose, never using them for food again.
  • It is possible that the oxide will settle while the product is cooling, or during transit in a hot environment. If, when you are applying it, it is translucent: you need to stir the oxide up from the bottom, or you are getting a false sense of security! A viable product will be opaque.

06 August 2008

Myth And Fact About Sunscreen

Apply SunscreenI should apply sunscreen as soon as I get on the beach.
For best results, apply sunscreen to dry skin about 15-30 minutes BEFORE going outside.

I don’t have to apply sunscreen on cloudy days.
Even on a cloudy day, 80% of the sun's ultraviolet rays pass through the clouds. So apply sunscreen for skin protection.

I can use tanning oils as a sunscreen
Most tanning oils do not contain sufficient amounts of sunscreens and usually have an SPF of less than 2. So, you must apply a sunscreen with a certain SPF to protect the skin from sun damage.

Sunscreens And Sunblocks Were The Same Thing
False. Sunscreens chemically absorb UV rays. Sunblocks physically deflect UV rays.

Sunscreen gives 100% protection
Even the highest SPF sunscreen with maximum UVA stars can’t block out all the sun’s harmful rays. This is why you should stay in the shade or cover up when the sun is at its strongest (11am-3pm).

I can lower the SPF factor when my skin start to tan.
A tan is a sign that the skin is already damaged, so don't add to this by reducing your protection.

The highest SPF means the best protection
Not necessarily. An SPF of 50 only provides 1-2% more protection than an SPF30.

Things You Should Consider When Buy A Sunscreen

1. Pick a broad-spectrum sunscreen that protects against UV-A and UV-B rays and has a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15.

2. Waterproof sunscreen is the better option because it protects you while in the water (swimming), after getting out or if you sweating.

3. Use a water-based sunscreen if you have oily skin or are prone to acne.

4. Sunscreens offer different SPF protection. A SPF of 15 provides around 94 percent coverage from UV rays. For around 96 percent coverage, try SPF 28.

5. Sunblock has has SPF of 30 or more and sunscreen has a SPF of 15 or less.

6. Be aware that more expensive does not mean better. Although a costly brand might feel or smell better, it is not necessarily more effective than a cheaper product.

7. Fair-skinned people burn more easily and should wear higher SPF sunblocks. Darker-skinned people who do not burn easily should still take preventative measures and use at least 15 SPF sunscreen.

8. Buy a brand that does not contain para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) if you are sensitive to that ingredient.

9. Be aware of the expiration date because some sunscreen ingredients might degrade over time.

UV-A Stars

UVA stars indicate the strength of a cream's protection against UVA rays in relation to its UVB protection. This means the higher the SPF, the more UVA protection is needed to achieve the same amount of stars. So an SPF 30 sunscreen with three stars will have more UVA protection than an SPF 15 sunscreen with four stars.

  • Five stars → 90% of the UV B protection
  • Four stars → 80% of the UV B protection
  • Three stars → 60% of the UV B protection
  • Two stars → 40% of the UV B protection
  • One stars → 20% of the UV B protection


SunlightThe portion of the sunlight that is filtered or blocked is ultraviolet radiation. There are three types of wavelengths :
  • UV-A : This is the longest wavelength and is not absorbed by the ozone. It penetrates penetrates deeply into the skin and can lead to cancer and premature skin aging. UV-A can penetrate glass, so you can even get too much sun from sitting in your car or near a sunny window. UVA doesn't feel hot and doesn't burn your skin.
  • UV-B: Involved in tanning and burning on the skin. It is partially blocked by the ozone layer.
  • UV-C is completely absorbed by the earth's atmosphere. However, as the earth's ozone layer continues to be depleted, more UVC radiation reaches the earth. It's also damaging to the skin.
All solar radiation produces free radicals and all solar radiation can give you sunburn, skin damage, and potentially skin cancer.

Sunscreen Application

If you want to avoid wrinkles and skin damage, the best protection is to stay in the shade.

To get the most out of your sunscreen, follow these tips.
  • Choose a 'broad spectrum' sunscreen. This means it provides UVA and UVB protection. It should have an SPF of at least 15 and at least four UVA stars.
  • Try a small portion around the wrist. If you see any allergic reaction or skin problem, buy a different sunscreen. Repeat these two steps until find the right sunscreen.
  • Buy a special sunscreen for your face. If you have oily skin or tend to get clogged pores then buy an oil free formula. If you have sensitive skin buy a special formula.
  • Buy a special sunscreen for your scalp because it CAN burn.
  • Apply sun screen 30 minutes before you go outside, so that it can be absorbed by the skin and less likely to wash off when you perspire.
  • Shake well before use to mix particles that might be clumped up in the container. Consider using the new spray-on or stick types of sunscreen.
  • To apply sunscreen, squeeze a dollop of cream sunscreen onto your hand and put it somewhere in the place. Rub it all over the certain place, and if you need more, squeeze a little more. Rub it in until you can't see the white anymore. Even if you use a high SPF, you will burn if you miss bits and don't reapply frequently.
  • Apply sunscreen in the following places :
    • Under shirt/Bathing suit
    • Behind neck, Cheeks and nose
    • Under bathing suit straps
    • On legs, On feet, On chest, On hands, On arms, On lips (use at least SPF 30 chapstick for your lips), On shoulders, On ears
    • Or apply anywhere else the sun will touch your skin.
  • Use a thick layer of cream to get the SPF protection indicated on the bottle. The effect of sunscreen reduces after one to two hours in the sun, o make sure you apply more often than this.
  • CREAM sunscreen is the best, not spray. Although if you put cream sunscreen on, then spray over it it keeps the sunscreen on longer and helps in protection.
  • SPF 50 does not offer significantly more protection than a sunscreen with SPF 30. For this reason in Australia and America the highest SPF factor you will find is 30+.
  • The SPF scale is also not linear: SPF 50 does not prevent burns 2/3 times longer than a SPF 30, and in fact blocks only about 1.3% more UVB radiation than SPF 30
  • Swimming makes the skin more sensitive to the sun. Use a water-resistant lotion and always reapply sunscreen after swimming or strenuous exercise.
  • Sweating dissipates sunscreen. If you sweat in the sun or you're taking part in any physical activity outdoors, make sure you reapply the lotion or use a cream that isn't absorbed by the skin. Look for products containing titanium dioxide or zinc oxide.
  • Certain perfumes and creams can cause hypersensitivity to the sun's rays. To be safe, avoid wearing any products other than sunscreen when exposed to the sun.
  • Apply sunscreen often throughout the day if you work outdoors, and wear hats and protective clothing.
  • On a cloudy day 30 to 50 per cent of the sun's UV rays reach your skin, so it's still possible to burn. You may not feel the sun's rays if it's windy, but they still cause damage. Be sure to apply sunscreen.

What SPF Should I Use?

The SPF you need depends on your skin type.

Most of us can manage with an SPF 15, and it doesn't make much of a difference if you go for higher factor numbers. The American Association of Dermatology (AAD) recommends that a "broad spectrum" sunblock with an SPF of at least 15 that is applied daily to all sun exposed areas, then reapplied every two hours.

However, in some recent clinical trials, sunblocks with SPF 30 provided significantly better protection than sunblocks with SPF15. Therefore at UCSF, we recommend sunblocks with SPF of at least 30 with frequent reapplication.

Even the highest SPF broad spectrum sunscreen cannot fully protect against UVA and UVB rays. This is why people should cover up and stay in the shade at the hottest times of the day (11am-3pm).

What Is An SPF?

SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor.The SPF number on the product's label refers to the strength of protection, and the length of time a sun-screening product will allow your skin to be in the sun without burning - relative to the length of time bare skin (or skin without the product applied) would burn or redden. The higher the SPF number, the longer the period of protection against the sun.

Your skin has a natural SPF, partially determined by how much melanin you have, or how darkly pigmented your skin is. The SPF is a multiplication factor.
For instance, if you normally burn after 10 minutes without wearing a sunscreen, a sunscreen with an SPF of 15 will protect you for 150 minutes (2.5 hours).
Here’s the formula for calculating : 10 minutes x 15 SPF = 150 minutes (2.5 hours).

SunlightAlthough the SPF only applies to UV-B, the labels of most products indicate if they offer broad spectrum protection, which is some indication of whether or not they work against UV-A radiation. The particles in sunblock reflect both UV-A and UV-B.

What you need to know about SPF?
  1. There are two systems for specifying a sunscreen's protection. American SPF numbers are double the SPF numbers on European products. An American SPF 30 sunscreen is the same as SPF 15 in Europe. Check which system is being used when you buy, and ask if you are in doubt.
  2. SPF is a laboratory measure of effectiveness. The European SPF system is based on the time a person with pale skin can remain in the sun without getting red and tender. This is usually 20 minutes in spring.
  3. If an SPF 8 sunscreen was applied, this would mean you could stay out in the spring sun for 8 x 20 minutes (160 minutes) without getting burnt.
  4. In practice, we don't know how quickly we burn, while factors such as sweat, water and application reduce sunscreen's effectiveness, so you shouldn't try to use this calculation as a guide.

Sunblocks – Types, Form And How They Work

The best sunblock varies from individual to individual. We recommend broad spectrum sunblock with UVA and UVB protection, a SPF rating of at least 30, in a form that is gentle enough for daily use.

Sunscreens come in two general types: chemical and physical.
  1. Chemical sunblocks penetrate the skin and absorb the sun's rays (UV radiation) before reach down into the lower layers of skin and cause damage then dissipating it as heat.
  2. Physical sunblocks lay a thin membrane on top of the skin that reflecst or scatter sunray’s (UV radiation) before it reaches the skin. It is often slightly coloured, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide which is white. They are not absorbed into the skin, thus they last longer and are needed to be applied on the skin just once which is enough for the whole day.
Some sunblocks combine both chemical and physical sunblocks.

Physical Sunblocks
The two types of physical sunblocks that are available are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. Both provide broad spectrum UVA and UVB protection and are gentle enough for everyday use. It needs to be apply at least every three to four hours, like in the morning, noon, early afternoon, and late afternoon. Because these are physical blocking agents and not chemicals, they are especially useful for individuals with sensitive skin, as they rarely cause skin irritation.

Chemical Sunblocks
Most chemical sunblocks are composed of several active ingredients. This is because no single chemical ingredient blocks the entire UV spectrum (unlike physical sunblocks). Instead, most chemicals only block a narrow region of the UV spectrum. Therefore, by combining several chemicals,with each one blocking a different region of UV light, one can produce a sunblock that provides broad spectrum protection. The majority of chemical agents used in sunblock work in the UVB region. Only a few chemicals block the UVA region. Since UVA can also cause long-term skin injury, dermatologists at UCSF routinely recommends sunblocks that contain either a physical blocking agent (e.g. titanium dioxide or zinc oxide) or Avobenzone (also known as Parsol 1789).

Sunblocks Form
Sunblocks comes in a variety of forms. Lotions, oils, sticks, gels, sprays and creams can all be effective sunscreens. However, sunblocks are only effective if they are used. We encourage you to try several types and find the one which works and feels the best to you. All sunscreens should be applied 15-20 minutes before sun exposure to allow a protective film to develop, then reapplied after water contact and sweating. Some sunblocks can lose effectiveness after two hours, so reapply frequently.
Sunblock ProductSunblock Product

In general, spray lotions and gels are the least oily but also the ones that wash off more easily and need to be reapplied more frequently. If you develop a rash or other type of allergic response to a sunscreen, try a different brand or form (lotion vs. oil, for example) to see if you can better tolerate it. The most common allergic reactions occur with sunscreens that contain PABA-based chemicals. If you develop a rash to a sunblock, check the label to see if PABA is an ingredient. If so, consider avoiding sunblocks that contains this in the future. Alternatively, try a titanium dioxide or zinc oxide containing sunblock as they rarely cause skin irritation and provide very good broad spectrum UV protection.

Waterproof vs Water Resistant
Water resistant sunblocks are available for active individuals or those involved in water sports. It's important to check the label to ensure they say "water-resistant" or "waterproof (very water-resistant)".
  • Water Resistant sunblock maintains the SPF level after 40 minutes of water immersion.
  • Waterproof sunblock maintains the SPF level after 80 minutes of water immersion.
These figures only apply if you let yourself air-dry and don't use a towel. It is therefore always a good idea to rub on a layer of cream after going for a dip.