23 September 2008

Nail Polish Applications Tips

Nail PolishNail Polish, to get perfect toes and fingers with nail color tips. It's important to wipe nails with a cloth before applying polish. Oils left on the nail will keep polish from sticking. Nail polish removers tend to make the nails dry and brittle. You should avoid the frequent use of nail polish removers all week. If you have dry and cracked nails, put some branded nail lotion onto your nails. These will keep your nails moisturized and beautiful.

  1. Make sure your nails are clean before applying a coat of polish. This will help minimize bumps and peeling of the polish.
  2. Use a top coat/sealer on natural nails. These help to protect and also retain the moisture. Remember, wait for polish to dry fully before adding an additional coat. Otherwise you run the risk of ruining the previous application.
  3. Before apply nail polish, polish a base coat with UV protection on your nails. The base Nail Polishcoat prevents the nails from being stained and easier/cleaner to remove due to the nail polish. UV rays can cause color in polish to fade and peel and can make the nails yellow and brittle.
  4. For the totally clueless: polish should be applied in strokes from the base of the nail to the tip. Don't do the underside of the tip - that makes it look fake and will probably peel off anyway.
  5. Be sure to bring it over the front edge of the nail and slightly under the tip. This helps prevent chipping. Even if it’s chipping, remove the paint from the nail and start over or you can dip your finger in nail polish remover and smooth over the chipped area and re-apply a topcoat.
  6. It’s better to apply several thin coats of polish than a few thick coats. The thicker the coat, the longer it takes to dry. Many quick-drying polishes dry from the outside in, so if you apply a coat over a thick coat that is not dry underneath, you may get indents or smudges. Thick coats are more likely to peel at the tips. Nail Polish
  7. The secret to keeping nails from smudging: dry time! Surfaces will feel dry to the touch after 10 minutes, but don't be fooled. It actually takes an entire hour for nails to completely dry.
  8. If you can't seem to polish your nails without also polishing the skin on the sides, let the polish completely dry and then soak the nails in water for a few minutes or take a shower/bath or do the dishes. This will soften the skin and loosen the polish. Gently scrape off the polish with a toothpick. The skin should dry before done, simply re-soak the nails.
  9. When a nail breaks, the best thing to do is to cut it off. But here's a trick if the break is low down (& painful, undoubtedly): cut a tiny strip of gauze from a teabag, place it over the tear & the paint over with polish.
  10. Keep the nail polish thinner in the refrigerator to make it last longer. Nail polish thinners are used to thin out any nail polish that has been applied too thickly over your nails.
  11. Always use a nail care lotion after washing hands. Although it may always be possible to practice this, the usage of a lotion would keep the hands and nails soft and lubricated. Soaps tend to strip the moisture off the nails.
  12. Nailbrushes are used to scrub the nails incase they get stained with dirt or bacteria. You can use a gentle soap.
  13. Glitter polishes can be used over your regular nail polish. These generally brighten up or enhance the basic nail enamel.

The Danger of Nail Polish

Conventional nail polishes dispensed at most drugstores and nail salons contain toxic chemicals, including :
  • Danger Nail PolishToluene. Which may cause simple headaches and eye, ear, nose and throat irritation to nervous system disorders and damage to the liver and kidneys.
  • Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). A chemical plasticizer. DBP is banned in European Union but the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States hasn’t yet. Women of childbearing age should avoid all exposure to DBP when they’re considering becoming pregnant, when they’re pregnant, or when they’re nursing.
  • Formaldehyde.
There Are Safer nail polishes available at natural health or beauty supply stores from online outlets such as Natural Solutions and Infinite Health Resources. These products contain naturally minerals and plant extracts to beautify nails without toxic ingredients :
  • Danger Nail PolishHoneybee Gardens
  • PeaceKeeper
  • Jerrie
  • Visage Naturel
  • Sante
According to the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, a coalition of organizations that includes EWG and the Breast Cancer Fund, Avon, Estee Lauder, Revlon and L’Oreal confirmed last year that they would begin removing DBP from products. And leading drugstore brand Sally Hansen has said it is reformulating all of its products to remove DBP and toluene as well as formaldehyde, which is also known to cause cancer and reproductive problems.

Danger Nail PolishExposure to toxic chemicals is not the only health concern associated with nail salons, where nail fungus and bacteria can lurk on the underside of any emery board. Check the salon for cleanliness before signing up for services to make sure attendants disinfect all tools and equipment between customers, and even recommends bringing in one’s own manicure or pedicure kit so as to minimize the transmission of any unsightly or painful maladies.

15 Steps To Make A Glamorous Nails

Clamor Nail1. Take off all nail polish with a cotton wool pad, that has been soaked with remover.

2. Soak your hands in a bowl of warm, soapy water with a pinch of salt.

3. Out some cream into the cuticle, around the nail and down to the first joint of the finger.Then push back the cuticle with a cuticle stick.

4. Clean the nails with a soft brush.

5. With a pumice stone lightly scrub your hands to gently cleanse the skin.

6. Cut your nails to the length you like. To prevent splitting and flaking you need to file your nails. With the rougher side of the nail file to reduce the size of the nail, then with the fine side to shape and seal edges.

7. Cut your cuticles using cuticle cutter. Other alternative? apply a cuticle remover liquid, which has a moisturizing agent and an alkaline base to the nails to further soften dead skin cells which collect around the nails groove.

Glamor Nail8. Remove dirt lodged underneath nails.

9. Change the water in the bowl and add a few drops of antiseptic solution.

10. Apply hand cream and give yourself a good massage so that you remove dry or loose skin cells. This improves the circulation and allows hands to become supple and soft to the touch.

11. Steam your hands with a soft towel and relax. Finished with manicure. For those who wish to go further can apply thermoherb.

12. Apply a thick layer of cream to your hands. The thermoherb pack reduces wrinkles and fine lines, and tightens skin.

13. Remove this pack after ten minutes and a rose mask pack is then applied with a manicure brush.

14. This will the refresh and invigorate the hands.

15. Nails are polished with a buffer; improves the blood circulation and gives nails a shine. Two coats of nail polish and a topcoat later.

21 September 2008

Hand and Nail Cream

Refreshing Hand Cream with Vital ET and Proplipid 141
Source: International Speciality Products, Formula 10890-123-2
IngredientsWeight %
Phase A
Deionized water65.70
Carbomer (Carbopol 980)0.30
Disodium EDTA0.10

Phase B
Ethylhexyl palmitate (Ceraphyl 368)9.50
Glyceryl dilaurate (Emulsynt GDL)2.00
Isodecyl oleate (Ceraphyl 140A)1.50
Glyceryl stearate, behenyl alcohol, palmitate acid, stearic acid, lecithin, lauryl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, Cetyl alcohol (Propilid 141)4.00

Phase C
Deionized water5.00

Phase D
Disodium lauraminodipropionate
Tocopheryl phosphate (Vital ET) 3.00
Diazolidinyl urea
Butyl carbamate(Germal Plus)0.50

Procedure :
  1. Combine ingredient in Phase A : heat to 750C and mix until uniform.
  2. Combine ingredient in Phase B : heat to 750C and mix until uniform.
  3. Add phase B to Phase A with homogenization.
  4. Add phase C to phase A and B with homogenization.
  5. Cool batch to 450C and add Phase D.
  6. qs for water loss.
This formula has passed a 28 days double-challenge efficacy test. pH of the formula should be approximately 6.19, it’s helpful for maintaining the acidity of the skin. The Prolipid 141 complex is formulated with a balanced of surfactant ingredients that offer a wide range of pH compatibility and skin protection through lamellar gel formation.

Hand Lotion

Conditioning hand and body lotion formula, a non-greasy and has a long-lasting silky after feel.

IngredientsWeight %
Part A
ArlasilkTM Stearamidopropyl PG-dimonium chloride phosphate & cetyl alcohol3
Propylene Glycol2
Germaben II (Propylene Glycol, diazolidinyl urea, methyl paraben, Propyl paraben)0.4
Titanium Dioxide0.4

Part B
Cetyl alcohol2
ArlatoneTMMAP 160 (Cetyl phosphate)1
Hexyl laurate4
MonasilTMPCA (PCA Dimethicone)2


Procedure :
  1. Heat parts A and B separately to 65oC. Slowly add B to A with homogenization and continue blending for an appropriate time. Stir cool to 40 to 450C, add frangance, and package.
  2. Typical properties :viscosity = 100,000 Cp, Ph = 6.4
The Arlasik Phospholipid SV is compatible with skin mantle pH and helps with skin feel. The Arlatone MAP 160 helps with Silicone deposition.


Frequent and proper hand cleansing can significantly reduce transmission of disease, care must be taken against overwashing.

Two major groups of microorganisms are found on skin:

  • Resident flora : normally reside there
  • Transient flora : contaminants that are the primary cause of hospital infections from cross contamination in a hospital environmental.

Plain soap and water can physically remove one level of microbes, and in fact may aid in the dispersal of bacteria on the skin of the hands. In order to kill microorganisms an antiseptic agent is necessary. Such cleaners typically contain alcohol and additional antimicrobial agent.

Alcohol cleaners may be too defatting and cause irritant contact dermatitis, especially when followed by soap and water cleansing. In additional to alcohol solutions, several other antibacterial agents are used. These include :

  1. Chlorhexidine gluconate. It’s cationic, and formulation containing anionic and nonionic emulsifying agents may reduce its activity.
  2. Iodine and iodophors. They often stabilized with a polymer and an ethoxylated nonionic surfactant to reduce irritation from the iodine.
  3. Quaternary ammonium compounds. Among the most frequently used quaternary ammonium compounds arethe alkyl benzalkonium chlorides. They are not compatible with anionic surfactant.
  4. Triclosan. IT’s nonionic and can be formulated with a variety of surfactants. The activity level of triclosan can be affected by the micelles formed by the surfactant.

Work site cleaners many be caustic and abrasive, they may contain sensitizers such as lanolin or limonene, or perfumes, and they may contain irritants such as alcohol. Antibacterial cleanser formulations containing alcohol are very typical of those that are used in medical facilities.

Anionic and cationic surfactants are more harmful than nonionic surfactants, and increased concentration of surfactant cause severe damage to the skin. The normal pH of the skin is in the range of 4.5 to 5.5, and hand and foot cleaners and treatment products can help maintain the health of the skin when they are formulated to be pH neutral to mildly acidic. Protein denaturation by the adsorption of the surfactant onto charged sites on the skin is a major factor in deciding which surfactant to use. The ability of the surfactant to adsorb onto the skin and penetrate cell membranes seems to determine degree of skin irritation.

For anionic surfactants of the series C12H25(OC2H4)XSO4Na, no denaturation occurs when X= 6 or 8. The addition of cationic surfactants to anionic surfactants tends to reduce their degree of irritation. Specific cleaners for home that recommends to use:

  1. Use soap and running water
  2. Rub your hand together, creating friction
  3. Wash all surfaces of your hands, including the backs of hands, wrists, between fingers, and under fingernails
  4. Wash hands for at least 60 sec
  5. Rinse well
  6. Dry the hands with a paper towel
  7. Turn the faucet off with a paper towel instead of bare hands.

Liquid cleansing product with a broad spectrum bactericide.

Active ingredient : Benzalkonium chloride
Inactive ingredient : water, cocaminopropyl betaine, propylene glycol, allantoin, cetrimonium chloride, quaternium 12, cocaminopropylamine oxide, diazolidinyl urea, quaternium 15, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, coloring agent, fragrance, TEA, citric acid.

Combination of surfactants (cocaminopropylamine oxide, cocaminopropyl betaine, cetrimonium chloride) improves the permeation of the active ingredients, and the presence of a keratolytic agent such as allantoin further enhances the activity of the benzalkonium chloride.

Nail Care

The right care begins with excellent care of the hands and feet.

The main parts of the nail are nail plate, which rests on the nail bed, or the fleshy tip of the finger. The nail plate grows out of the nail root, which is embedded underneath the skin at the base of the nail. Beneath the nail root is the nail matrix, which contains nerves together with lymph and blood vessels that produce nail cells and control the rate of nail growth. The lunula (half moon area) at the base of the fingertip is where the matrix connects to the nail bed. The skin of the finger is attached to the top of the nail by the cuticle that functions to protect and seal the area between the nail and nail bed. The nail is made primarily of keratin and like hair and skin, needs moisture to remain smooth and flexible. The condition of the nail is often a reflection of one’s general health and is often used a diagnostic tool for hearth and lung health.

Common problems that people experience with their nail:

  • Chipping
  • Splitting
  • Peeling
  • Brittleness
  • etc

Those problems above can be as a result of overexposure to harsh chemicals found in removers, cleaners, and nail treatment products.

There are treatment products available that can help to mitigate these effects. Some of these are:

  • Nail moisturizers
  • Strengtheners
  • Hardeners
  • Antibacterial fluids
  • Antifungal creams and fluids
  • Corn and callus softeners and removers

Match Perfume With Your Personality

Each person has their own favorite Aroma and it’s different one and the other. In fact, this could reflect your personality. How to choose the right perfume which match with our personality? Follow these next steps :

Step 1
GraceIf you are a sporty or serious type of person, you may fit with a light and fresh perfume or perfume that reminds you to the fresh wind or a fresh lemon aroma.

Hilosophy’s Amazing Grace and Pure Perfume offer a pure, grace and feminism perfume. There’s another option, Eau de Cartier, has fresh orange aroma with little extra musk in it.

PerfumeStep 2
Try the flowers If you’re grace and feminine person. There are so many perfume options which has flower aroma. Ralph Lauren Perfume is great, has a spirit flowerish aroma. Another option is Marc Jacob’s Daisy. It contains a light and young spirit flower aroma.

PerfumeStep 3
Fill your free side soul with a warm aroma like vanilla or flower. Guerlains’ Shalimar, this perfume is one of the famous perfume coz of the sweet aroma. But, you can also choose Princess from Vera Wang. It has a softer aroma.

PradaStep 4
If you are a sensual person and love become the “eye catching”, try the musk aroma. Prada from Prada, is a classic perfume, and has a great aroma. The other is Cashmere Mist from Donna Karan which offers a sensual mace.

19 September 2008

What Treatments Are Available For Nail-Biting?

  • Keep your nails trimmed and filed. Taking care of your nails can help reduce your nail-biting habit and encourage you to keep your nails attractive.
  • Have a manicure regularly or use nail polish.
  • Wearing artificial nails may stop you from biting your nails and protect them as they grow out.
  • Paint a bitter-tasting polish, such as CONTROL-IT, Thum or Jessica 'Nibble No More,' a no-nail-biting polish with bitter cactus extract as its secret ingredient, on your nails. The awful taste will remind you to stop every time you start to bite your nails.
  • Try substituting another activity, such as drawing or writing or squeezing a stress ball or Silly Putty, when you find yourself biting your nails.
  • Wear gloves, adhesive bandages, or colored stickers whenever possible to remind you not to bite your nails.
  • Snap a rubber band on the inside of your wrist when you start to bite your nails so you have a negative physical response to nail-biting. Distract your mouth. Eat carrot sticks to keep you busy. Keep a stick of gum handy for those weak moments.
  • Push your cuticles back. Many nail-biters do not have moons on the base of their fingernails because their cuticles have not been pushed back. Gently push cuticles towards your finger to reveal more of your nail. This is easier to do after a shower when your hands and nails are wet. This makes the nail appear longer, and it gives a more attractive shape, which might also be a motivation to stop biting.
  • Behavioral therapy is beneficial when simpler measures are not effective. Habit Reversal Training (HRT), seeks to unlearn the habit of nail biting and possibly replace it with a more constructive habit and has shown its effectiveness versus placebo both in children and adults.
  • Children may bite their nails more often when they are having problems at school or with friends. Talk with your child or his or her teacher about any new stress at school. Children are more likely to stop biting their nails when they understand what may trigger it. It is also important for your child to help choose a treatment method so he or she can use the treatment successfully.Punishing or shaming a child for nail biting is not helpful.
  • Eat calcium- and magnesium- rich foods so that your nails will repair and grow well. A balanced diet, rich in beneficial minerals and vitamins: eggs, soy, whole grains and liver are helpful to nails. Sulfurous minerals found in apples, cucumbers, grapes, garlic, asparagus, and onions all help consistent growth. Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are found in salmon, nuts, seeds and tuna. They all help keep nails shiny and pliable. General vitamins and minerals are also important.

What Damage Can Result From Nail Biting?

  • The fingertips become red and sore and your cuticles to bleed
  • Increases risk for infections around nailbeds (paronychia) or warts around the nail bed and infections in mouth
  • Dental problems (such as gingival) and infections of the gums
  • Pass bacteria or viruses from nails and fingers to mouth by biting nails, making it more likely to catch a cold or other infection
  • Long-term nail-biting can also interfere with normal nail growth and cause deformed nails (permanent nail damage)
  • Rarely, nail-biting may be a symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD symptoms are usually treated with medications
  • Regarding social effects the aesthetic aspect of the nail may affect employability, self-esteem, and interaction with other people

What Causes Nail Biting?

It’s accepted that nail biting can be motivated by any of the following: stress, medical disorders, acquired behaviour, genetics or just plain habit.

Stress and Anxiety
Child or adult uses nail biting as a coping mechanism to relieve pent-up emotions. Nail biting is a habitual condition, a common reaction to stress and boredom. Nail Biters could also suffer from a poor self-image or could be punishing themselves for deeper-rooted problems or anxieties. Basically, nail biting is a rational substitution of one problem for another. In many instances nail biting is used as a tension reliever. Any kind of disharmony as a result of friends, family, work, or school can trigger the habit. 99% of nail biters have minor problems or a fixed biting habit. Fewer have a deep emotional problem of which nail biting is a symptom.

Medical disorders
Nail biting can also be symptomatic of some medical disorders. For example an emotional trauma brought on by the constant fights between his parents can result in nail biting. A child who constantly bites his nails may be suffering severe anxiety or a poor self-image. The habit will have progressed beyond a simple habit and become obsessive behaviour when the child's nail biting habit interferes with his daily functioning or with his social relationships. The fact that he gets teased at school is a sign of this.

Nail Biting Child
Nail biting is often an acquired behaviour not aware of the habit. The child resorts to such behaviour because of its association with some form of comfort or pleasure derived from it.

Studies also suggest that nail biting can run in the family thus indicating a genetic factor. This is also borne out by the fact that some children start biting their nails as toddlers.

Who Bites Their Nails?

People of all ages bite their nails.
  • About 50% of children between the ages of 10 and 18 bite their nails at one time or another. Nail-biting occurs most often as teens are going through puberty changes.
  • About 23% of young adults, ages 18 to 22 years, bite their nails.
    Only a small number of other adults bite their nails. Most people stop biting their nails on their own by age 30. About 10% of men over the age of 30 bite their nails.
    Boys bite their nails more often than girls after age 10.
Nail-biting may occur with other body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB) such as hair-pulling or skin-picking.

Nail Biting (Onychophagia)

Nail-biting is a common stress-relieving habit in children and young adults, affecting around 30% of children between 7 to 10 years and 45% of teenagers. It is usually not a serious problem for children. It becomes most common in adolescence when almost half of all children bite their nails to some degree.

Anxiety, stress, genetics, boredom, acquired behaviour and self-esteem have all been identified as potential causes. Nail biting can be anything from a bad habit to an outward symptom of a medical or emotional disorder.

While nail biting and picking seems to be such a common problem, the psychological and medical research does not agree on an exact motivation for the action. However, for no matter what the reason, chronic onychophagists (nail biters) will be acutely aware of just how difficult it is to break this destructive habit.

You may bite your nails in times of stress or excitement, or in times of boredom or inactivity. It can also be a learned behavior from family members. Nail-biting is the most common of the typical "nervous habits," which include thumb-sucking, nose-picking, hair-twisting or -pulling, tooth-grinding, and picking at skin.

People who bite their nails without realizing you are doing it. You might be involved in another activity, such as reading, watching television, or talking on the phone, and bite your nails without thinking about it. Nail-biting includes biting the cuticle and soft tissue surrounding the nail as well as biting the nail itself.

Treatment depends on the individual, should address the reason why your child is biting his nails. If your child is under a lot of stress, try to reduce the stress.

Recognized Your Sunscreen And Sunblock’s Ingredient Before Buy!

Sunscreen IngredientsThere are two basic types of skin cream or lotion protection :
  1. absorb and deflect (or reflect) the sun's rays via a chemical reaction.
  2. blocks : zinc oxide and titanium dioxide (which create a physical barrier against rays).
  • Though rarely used now in sunscreens, beware of products that contain the ingredient.
    40 % of the population is sensitive to it, experiencing red, itchy skin.
Benzophenone (benzophenone-3), homosalate, and octy-methoxycinnamate (octinoxate)
  • They have shown estrogenic activity; shown to disrupt hormones, affecting the development of the brain (particularly the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal system) and reproductive organs in laboratory rats.
  • Because people are exposed simply by eating fish (where benzophenone accumulates in the fat), using sunscreen containing these chemicals unduly increases the exposure.
Parabens (butyl-, ethyl-, methyl-, and propyl-)
  • Parabens may also mimic estrogen, but because they are common in sunscreens, avoiding them may prove difficult.
Padimate-O and Parsol 1789 (2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid and avobenzone)
  • These chemicals have the potential to damage DNA when illuminated with sunlight.
  • On the skin's surface, these chemicals do protect from UV damage; however, once absorbed into the skin, these same chemicals can prove destructive.
  • Padimate-O and Parsol 1789 are excited by the UV energy which they absorb and become reactive, acquiring the potential to attack cellular components, including DNA.
  • DNA damage inflicted by an excited sunscreen is much less capable of being repaired by naturally occurring repair mechanisms than the DNA damage inflicted by UV alone.
Although insect repellents with sunscreen may seem like an easy option, Doctors recommend avoiding them because of the dangers of overexposure to DEET, which can cause eye and skin irritations, headaches, nausea, when the product is reapplied after swimming or exercise.

Most titanium dioxide used in sunscreens is coated with materials that reduce its photoactivity. According to current evidence titanium dioxide is much less likely than other chemical sunscreens to penetrate human skin.

14 September 2008

Sunscreen Ingredients

In the US, recently approved sunscreen chemicals lists 16 UV filters :
  • 14 of which are organic UV filters (absorb UV rays)
  • 2 inorganic particulates (absorb and reflect UV rays)
SunscreenMaximum Allowable Dose (%)Spectral maxExtinction Coefficient
Organic Filters


PABA (paraaminobenzoic acid)1529014,000
Trolamine salicylate122983000
UV B/partial UV A




Inorganic Particulates

Zinc Oxide25Broad Spectrum
Tianium Dioxide25Broad Spectrum
Source : From Shaat, N., Ed., The Chemistry of Sunscreens in Sunscreen,3rd ed., Taylor & Francis, NewYork, 2005.

Outside the US, there are many other available sunscreens that are more powerful. Some of these are Tinasorb and mexoryl that absorb strongly in the UV A II region. Tinasorb has been submitted as a Time and Extent Application and is currently going through the regulatory process in the US for approval in a few years.
TypeINCI NameTrade NameSpectral MaxApproval Status

EHTUnivul T 150314Europe, TEA application US

DBTUvasorb HEB312Europe

BMPParsol SLX312Europe

TDSAMexoryl SX345Europe, NDA application

DPDINeo Heliopan AP334Europe

DHHBUnivul A Plus354Europe
UV A and UV B

DTSMexoryl XL303 and 341Europe, Japan, TEA application US

MBBTTinosorb M305 and 360Europe, Australia , TEA application US

BEMTTinosorb S310 and 343Europe, TEA application US
Source: Tuchinda, C. et al., Dermatol. Clin., 2006

Some of the filters approved outside the US and the maximum wavelength at which they absorb UV light. Most of these filters posses a very high extinction coefficient and are very broad and, in fact, absorb at two different wavelengths. Sunscreens effective in prevention of polymorphic light eruption in photosensitive patients and in those patients with lupus erythematosis.

Skin Lotion Ingredients and Composition

Skin CareVehicle for sunscreen is as important as the effectiveness of the sunscreen system chosen. One of the water soluble and easily washed off the skin is sunscreen spray milks.

Blend cyclomethicone, stearyl methicone, menthol, and ethylhexylethoxycinnamate as the sunscreen, produce O/W microemulsions. Various surfactants/lipids/sunscreen were characterized by microscopy and laser light scattering.

This following formula is one of the stable O/W microemulsions that were waterproof and had a great humectants.

Skin Care Product
Ingredients% Weight
1:2 Hexanediol30
Soya lecithin2.3
C12-15 alkyl benzoate1
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate1.2

There is no risk of the oil-soluble sunscreens not being adsorbed into the skin, since microemulsions are one-phase systems.

There are two factors that determine whether an emulsion will be O/W or W/O :
  1. Phase volume
  2. Surfactant used
Sun CareSun care products means positioning the sun filter to absorb or scatter UV rays. Conventional O/W vehicles fall short in that the sunscreens are found in the internal phase, as stated previously. At the other side, W/O vehicles are more effective. Its sunscreens are more effective coz the sunscreen was in the external phase. Usually, this sunscreen are more water resistant. The problems is, higher concentration of the lipophilics, means higher cost of the formula.

This problem can be slove. To reduce the cost, incorporating a polymeric surfactant such as PEG 30 dipolyhydrxystearate. The cost advantage of using this surfactant is that it allows formulating W/O close to the cost of O/W formulations. The incorporation of inorganic sunscreen into the formula is also enhanced due to the dispersing property of the surfactant.

Lip Protectant Ingredient and Composition

LipsSometimes we’re all forget that lip is one part of the body that need protection again UV radiation. Lip will not tan because there is no melanin present there. But remember, lip can burn too! As mucous membrane lips need to be protected from dehydration as well as from UV. The formulation that will work best on the lips is the anhydrous type, since these types are not easily washed off by saliva and moisture.

This formula is a typical SPF lip protectant.
Ingredients% Weight
Octyl dodecyl steoryl stearate15
Isopropyl lanolate5
Castor Oil15
Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate8
Vitamin Eqs

The use of dimethicone as a skin protectant also makes this product a drug that must follow the FDA’s skin protectant monograpgh. Inorganic sunscreen are typically not used since a minimal SPF of 15 is sufficient and inorganics at high concentration, above 3%, will show a white residue.

Hair Protected Cream Ingredient and Composition

Sunscreen use in hair care products is limited since most sunscreens are not substantive. Hair is a nonliving structure.

Hair Care
Ingredients% Weight
Sulfur (protein bound)4.7
Zinc200 ppm

Hair Care ProductSunlight, wind, air, pollutants, and chlorine in swimming pools can be susceptible be damaging agents. Although nonliving, these agents can cause damage to the hair fiber, and this must be prevented at great expense, especially treated or relaxed hair.

The use of anionic polymers polyquaternium 59 and butylenes glycol significantly increased the sun protection of the hair.

This next formula is a sunscreen spray formulated especially for the hair. This formula doesn’t contain sunscreens, and the product is not an OTC drug, but a cosmetic, and will not require any OTC testing as long as the claims are carefully thought out.

Hair Spray
Ingredients% Weight
Water 90
Butylene glycol & polyquaternium 592
Hydrolyzed keratin1
Dimethicone copolyo15

Foundation Ingredient and Composition

Different skin types will require the use of different sunscreens. There must be adequate test done on various skin types to determine the optimal blend of sunscreens to be used for all skin types.

Ingredients% Weight
Iron oxides2
Titanium dioxide5
Magnesium Oxide1.5
Zirconium Oxide2.5
Zinc Oxide5.5
Titanium Dioxide8
Stearic acid4
Propylene glycol monostearate2.5
Lanolin alcohols1.5
Sorbitan sesquioleate0.72
Isopropyl myristate7
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose0.15

This formula had a great spreadability and can be prepared very easily. But there is a problem. The use of titanium dioxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide, zinc oxide, and talc will produce ashiness on dark skin types. There is a solve for such problems. Use this next formula.

Ingredients% Weight
Nanofine red Iron oxides2
Micronized Titanium dioxide14
Lithium stearate2.5
Isostearic acid1
Stearic acid3
Propylene glycol monostearate3
Lanolin alcohols2
Sorbitan sesquioleate0.72
Isopropyl myristate7
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose0.15

FoundationUsing formula like this for sunscreen product, the chalkiness or ashiness is gone; using a translucent mica, titanium dioxide, and iron oxides. To helps the powder adhere to the skin use lithium stearate. The SPF of approximately 17 is achieved by the use of the microfinescreen is advantageous in that it has a high phorostability profile. The downside can be its hydrophobic effect, which may be unstable for the length f a drug stability protocol.

Combining a metaloxide flake and an ultraviolet absorbent-encapsulated polymer resin enhanced SPF efficacy, and also required smaller amounts of both components in formulations. Example of the polymer resins include vinylpolymers, acrylic resins, polystyrenes, and some others. The UV resins include salicylic acid, benzophenone derivates, and aminobenzoic acid derivates. The metal oxides include zinc oxide, titanium dioxides, and zirconium oxides.

SPF Testing

SPF measures the length of time a product protects against erythema or skin reddening from UV B, compared to how long the skin takes to redden without protection.

Minimal erythermal dose (MED) is the least amount of UV radiation that will illicit redness of the skin. MED number varies from person to person.

Sunscreen Effectiveness in the UVA and UVB Regions

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate++
Octyl salicylate++
Zinc oxide+++
Titanium Dioxide+++

SPF effectiveness is determined by radiating the skin of human panelists with a solar ultraviolet stimulator. When choosing human subjects for SPF efficacy, the clinical labs must use the following inclusion and exclusion criteria.

  • Skin types I always burn easily, never tans
    Skin types II always burn easily, tans minimally
    Skin types III burns moderately, tans gradually
  • Male and female must be included
  • Ages are between 18 to 70 years
  • Persons must be in a good health
  • Exclusion: known allergy to sunscreens, UV light, and cosmetics. Any preexisting conditions that could interfere with the test. Pregnant or nursing women, chronic medication deoendence, etc.
  • The total number of panelists should be no more than 25 human subjects; at least 20 subjects must have valid data.
  • Two different SPF ddeterminations are made, called static and water resistant.
Static SPF Method (US Regulation)

One week prior to start of the study, at least 20 subjects are evaluated for their MED for unprotected skin using this method with an untreated site.

Day 1
  • The investigational drug and reference standard are applied to test sites on the back following a computer generated randomization scheme.
  • A single topical application (2mg/cm2) is applied to an area about 60 cm2 on the back of each subject. Total dose is 120 mg applied.
  • An untreated control is placed as well.
  • After 15 minutes, the treated sites are subdivided into seven area, all of which are exposed to increasing doses of UVR.
  • The treated sites are exposed to increasing doses of radiation based on their expected.
  • The untreated sites are exposed to increasing doses of UVR determine each subject’s inherent MED.
  • The dose selected are a geometric series represented by 1.25n where each exposure is 25% greater than the previous one.
  • These provide secondary confirmation values for the MED for unprotected skin that are used to calculate the SPF.
Day 2
  • All sites are evaluated for edema and erythema.
  • Erythema is graded on a five point scale of 0, 0.5,1 ,2, and 3.
  • The amount of erythema effective energy that produces a grade of 1 used as the MED.
  • A standard 8% homosalate sunscreen is included in the test, which is prepared according to the monograph and must have an SPF of 4 for the test to be valid.
Calculation and Lamp Characteristic

The SPF is a ratio of the UV dosing time to produce MED on sunscreen treated skin vs the dosing time needed to produce MED in untreated skin. The longer the UV exposure before producing erythema, the higher the SPF. Remember that SPF reflects protection against UVB predominantly.

The exposure dose is expressed in joules per square meter :

Dose (J/m2) = irradiance (W/m2) x time (sec)

MED is the minimal erythema dose of radiation required to produce a barely visible erythema on the site. The irradiance is a constant, and the radiation flow from the lamp is in watts per meter square. The dose of radiation is in joules per meter square. Time exposure is therefore the variable controlled and measured during the study.

To minimize variability caused by different light sources, regulatory agencies define specifications for solar simulators. US FDA requires solar stimulations to be filtered do that they provide a continuous emission spectrum from 190 to 320 nm, similar to sunlight at sea level with the sun at a zenith angle 100. The simulator has less than 1% of its total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nm, and it has not more than %of its total energy output contributed by wavelength over 400 nm.

Water Resistant SPF Method

This SPF method is a variation of the static method that involves exposure of sunscreen treated skin to water soaking for a period, followed by determination of SPF as above.

Day 1
  • Sunscreen and a water resistant sunscreen control were applied to individual areas on the subject’s back.
  • A single topical application (2mg/cm2) was applied to an area about 60 cm2 on the back of each subject. Total dose is 120 mg applied.
  • After 15 minutes, the subject entered a whirlpool bath and remained in the circulating water for 20 min.
  • The subject than rested out of the water 20 min, returned to the whirlpool bath for 20 min, and then exited the bath for the conclusion of the water test, allowing the test sites to air dry.
  • The standard sunscreen control (8% homosalate) was then applied to a designated site on the upper portion of the subject’s back.
  • The site were divided into subsites, about 1 cm2 in area, each of which was exposed to increasing doses of UVR.
  • The dose selected are a geometric series represented by 1.25n where each exposure is 25% greater than the previous one.
  • The middle subsite received a dose expected to yield the SPF of the product. The exact series of exposures administered was previously determined by the MED of unprotected skin.
  • The MED for unprotected skin was repeated and used to calculate the SPF.
Day 2

The test sites were evaluated based on the erythema grading scale.

UVA Measurements

UV AUVA is most often associated with long term effects of photodamage and wrinkling of skin rather than the erythematous precursor of sunburn. UVA rays cause immediate and persistent tanning of the skin. While this is a suntan, it can be used as a marker for excessive UVA exposure. The method that is used most frequently is persistent pigment darkening (PPD), introduced by the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA).

PFA = Minimal PPD (protected skin with sunscreen)

Minimal PPD (unprotected skin)
  • The determination of the protection factor for UVA (PFA-PA rated as +, ++, +++, the greater the number of +, the higher the UVA protection) was based on testing procedures proposed by JCIA.
  • Each of 10 subject’s minimal PPD dose of untreated, unprotected skin was determined by exposing test sites on the back to UVR.
  • The untreated, unprotected test area from day 0 served as the area for the minimal PPD determination on the actual test day (day1).
  • Five subsite were selected within the test site. The UVR doses selected were a geometric series representedby 1.25n, where each exposure time interval was 25% greater than the previous time. This PPD value was then used in calculating the actual PFA values.
  • The test drug and standard sunscreen control (5% avobenzone/3% octinoxate) test site were also divided into five subsites, each about 1 cm2.
  • Each of the test subsites was subjected to additional doses of UVR, determined using a geometric series of five doses, where the middle dose was placed to yield the expected PFA of the product.
  • Treated and untreated sites were examined for evidence of pigmentation at 3h after irradiation. Immediate response criteria were graded as present (1) or absent (0).
  • All sites were evaluated for PPD using the scale 0, 0.5, 1, and 2. The quantity of effective energy needed to achieve a score of 1 was considered the minimal PPD value.
  • The PFA was calculated using the minimal PPD of unprotected skin divided into the minimal PPD of protected skin. Label PFA was determined as per JCIA recommended methodology. The rating :
PA+ ---> PFA rating of <4> PFA rating of <8> PFA rating of >8

Types of Sunscreen Formula

Emulsion is the most vehicle used in sunscreen formula because it offers lots of advantages and wersality. Emulsion also offers highest SPF possible at the lowest possible cost. Emulsion has a uniform sunscreen film, thick sunscreen film, nontransparent sunscreen fil and minimum ingredient interaction with the sunscreen’s active agent.

Sunscreen Emulsions

Emulsions Advantages :
  • Sunscreen EmulsionGood performance in each of the important areas
  • Facilitate incorporation of sunscreen active agents, which are usually oils that can be easily emulsified
  • Can be prepared contain large percentage of water (more cost effective vehicle)
  • Cosmetically desirable vehicles (give skin smooth, silky, without being greasy)
  • Can accommodate a wide variety of raw materials
Emulsions Disadvantages :
  • Thermodynamically unstable
  • Eventually separate
  • Present a perfect medium for microbial contamination and require preservatives
Emulsions are classified in two categories Oil in water (O/W) and Water in Oil (W/O).

Water in Oil (W/O)
  • Better vehicle
  • Can be design as water resistant sunscreen and provide greater efficacy (higher SPF) for the same concentration as O/W emulsions.
  • Most sunscreens were soluble in the oil phase, that’s why in W/O emulsions the oil phase is continuous and when applied in the skin, there is no need for agglomeration to occur. A a result a very uniform sunscreen is produced during spreading, a long with a high SPF
Emulsions are often stabilized by liquid crystal. The liquid crystals are lamellar in structure and either form a gel network in the external phase or surround the oil droplets as layers. The liquid crystal structure reduces the tendency to coalesce because of the high viscosity of the lamellar structure and this facilitates high emulsions stability. Such emulsions are not very hydrophilic and provide water resistant characteristics for sunscreen formulations. Their lipoidal characteristics facilitate adhesion to the hydrophobic, lipoidal skin surface, and thus enable formation of a most uniform film.

Oil Advantages :
  • Sunscreen OilGenerally well accepted
  • Easy to formulate and easy to apply to the skin spreading quickly and uniformly to cover a large surface area
  • There is only one phase that’s why it has excellent product stability
  • Most sunscreen active agent are lipoidal in nature, they are soluble in the oils employed. Because of this, manufacturing process are more straightforward than the emulsion
  • Can be prepared in room temperature
Oil Disadvantage :
  • Thin and transparent sunscreen film, which will have a lower SPF
  • Poor performance by looking at the interactions between sunscreen (nonpolar ester) and the nonpolar oils vehicle (mineral oil). Nonpolar oil can cause the position of the UV curves to shift to shorter wavelength
  • The solubility parameter (stickiness/cohesiveness) determines orientation of the sunscreen within oil
  • Sunscreen oils are expensive system since the anhydrous oil system there is no water to lower the cost of expensive raw material